Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line. Sodium at standard temperature and pressure is a soft silvery metal that combines with oxygen in the air and forms grayish white sodium oxide unless immersed in oil or inert gas, which are the conditions it is usually stored in. Sodium metal can be easily cut with a knife and is a good conductor of electricity and heat because it has only one electron in its valence shell, resulting in weak metallic bonding and free electrons, which carry energy. Due to having low atomic mass and large atomic radius, sodium is third-least dense of all elemental metals and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being lithium and potassium.
The alkali metals are so called because reaction with water forms alkalies i. In Sir Humphry Davy became the first to prepare sodium in its elemental form, applying electrolysis to fused sodium hydroxide NaOH.
Sodium is an important constituent of a number of silicate materials, such as feldspars and micas. There are huge deposits of rock salt in various parts of the world, and sodium nitrate deposits exist in Chile and Peru. The sodium content of the sea is approximately 1.
Sodium has been identified in both the atomic and ionic forms in the spectra of stars, including the Sunand the interstellar medium. Analysis of meteorites indicates that the silicate material present has an average content of approximately 4.
Sir Humphry Davy, detail of an oil painting after Sir Thomas Lawrence; in the National Portrait Gallery, London Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London Lighter than watersodium can be cut with a knife at room temperature but is brittle at low temperatures.
It conducts heat and electricity easily and exhibits the photoelectric effect emission of electrons when exposed to light to a marked degree.
Sodium is by far the most commercially important alkali metal. Most processes for the production of sodium involve the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. Inexpensive and available in tank-car quantities, the element is used to produce gasoline additives, polymers such as nylon and synthetic rubberpharmaceuticals, and a number of metals such as tantalumtitaniumand silicon.
It is also widely used as a heat exchanger and in sodium-vapour lamps. The yellow colour of the sodium-vapour lamp and the sodium flame the basis of an analytical test for sodium is identified with two prominent lines in the yellow portion of the light spectrum.
High-pressure sodium-vapour lamp bulb. Top and centre W. Significant quantities were used in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead as a gasoline additive, a market that disappeared with the advent of unleaded gasoline.
Sodium sulfate, Na 2 SO 4, is a white crystalline solid or powder employed in the manufacture of kraft paper, paperboard, glass, and detergents and as a raw material for the production of various leslutinsduphoenix.com is obtained either from deposits of the sodium sulfate minerals mirabilite and thenardite or synthetically by the treatment of sodium chloride with sulfuric acid. Nov 11, · Sodium chloride is an ionic compound in which the sodium and chloride ions are in the ratio of It is commonly called as table salt, common salt or halite(the mineral form of common salt). It is commonly called as table salt, common salt or halite(the mineral form of common salt). An Introduction to Chemistry. Get started learning about the study of matter. These lecture notes, study guides, lab experiments, and example problems can help you understand the building blocks of life.
Substantial amounts of sodium are used in the manufacture of sodium alkyl sulfates as the principal ingredient in synthetic detergents. Sodium also is used as a starting material in the manufacture of sodium hydride NaH and sodium borohydride NaBH4.
In addition, sodium is employed in the production of dyes and dye intermediates, in the synthesis of perfumesand in a wide variety of organic reductions. It is used in the purification of hydrocarbons and in the polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
In many organic applications, sodium is used in the form of dispersions in hydrocarbon liquid media. Molten sodium is an excellent heat-transfer fluid, and, because of this property, it has found use as coolant in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. Sodium is used extensively in metallurgy as a deoxidant and as a reducing agent for the preparation of calciumzirconiumtitaniumand other transition metals.
Commercial production of titanium involves reduction of titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 with sodium. The products are metallic Ti and NaCl. Principal compounds Sodium is highly reactive, forming a wide variety of compounds with nearly all inorganic and organic anions negatively charged ions.
The principal commercial sodium compounds are the chloride, carbonate, and sulfate. The most important and familiar sodium compound is sodium chloride, or common salt, NaCl.Formulas and Nomenclature of Ionic and Covalent Compounds.
Adapted from McMurry/Fay, section , p. NaHCO 3 is sodium bicarbonate (or sodium hydrogen carbonate); NaHSO 3 is sodium bisulfite (or sodium hydrogen sulfite), two elements can combine in several different ways to make completely different compounds.
Its most common compounds include dissolved sodium chloride (or table salt), its solid form, halite and as a charge balancing cation in zeolites. man bought three and a half pounds of sodium metal from the internet and spent the evening reacting it with water in various shapes and sizes whilst he and his friends watched from a safe distance.
Let us get to know more about the compounds of sodium and potassium. Introduction to Alkali Metals. It can be cut with a knife, It forms various compounds like salts, oxides, hydroxides, etc. Let’s study the compounds of sodium and potassium respectively now. A. Introduction to Chemistry, Atoms and Elements Importance of Chemistry Ions in cells Sodium Na Bones, eggs, CaCO3 Calcium Ca.
4 Compounds can be decomposed into elements Various types of Hydrogen (different isotopes) Hydrogen (protium) – 1 proton in nucleus.
Sodium Chloride is a metal halide composed of sodium and chloride with sodium and chloride replacement capabilities. When depleted in the body, sodium must be replaced in order to maintain intracellular osmolarity, nerve conduction, muscle contraction and normal renal function. Introduction to Ionic Compounds.
Introduction: Ionic Compound Example: The main principle to remember is that ions are completely different in physical and chemical properties from the neutral atoms of the element. The notation of the + and - charges on ions is very important as it conveys a definite meaning.