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Introduction[ edit ] Circulating fluidized bed is a relatively new technology with the ability to achieve lower emission of pollutants.
Extensive research has been conducted on this technology for the past 10 years because pollution in the world is getting more serious by the day and clean practice will be very crucial for the sustainability of the earth.
The importance of this technology has grown recently because of tightened environmental regulations for pollutant emission. This means that emissions such as metals, acid gases, organic compound, flue gas acids and other pollutants from power plants or industrial facilities have to meet the requirements set by EPA  and upgrades have to be done for facilities that do not meet the standards.
As a result, the demand for circulating fluidized bed technology is predicted to sky rocket. The industrial application of fluidized bed started long back.
InWinkler's coal gasifier represented the first significant large-scale use of fluidized bed  Kunii and Levenspiel, CFB combustion technology continues to grow strongly in large utility power plant applications as CFB boiler technology has grown from small-scale industrial applications to large ultra-supercritical power plants in less than 20 years.
The s crisis reactivated the interest to the solid fuel and coal again. To apply CCS, novel techniques viz.
This chapter is dedicated toward the detailed review of literature in the fields of CFB's hydrodynamic behaviour, oxy-fuel combustion and generations of oxy-fuel combustion.
It also discusses the literature on lower or zero carbon energy sources biofuel. The special focus on the biofuel usage for CFB is to service lower or zero carbon energy technology.
Fluidization regimes and classification[ edit ] Fluidization is the phenomenon by which solid particles are transported into a fluid like state through suspension in a gas or liquid. In fact, there is a simple and precise way to classify the various fluid-particle beds Winaya et al. Most of the CFB operating and environmental characteristics are the direct results of the hydrodynamic behaviour.
Kunii and LevenspielOka and Dekkerand Souza-Santos defined the regimes of fluidization as described below: When the fluid is passed through the bottom of the bed at a low flow rate, the fluid merely percolates through the void spaces between stationary particles.
When the gas velocity reaches Umf minimum fluidization velocity, and all the particle are just suspended by the upward flowing fluid.
When the flow rate increases beyond the minimum fluidization velocity, bed starts bubbling. The gas-solid system shows large instabilities with bubbling and gas channelling with rise in flow rate beyond minimum fluidization.
Such a bed is called aggregative, heterogeneous, or bubbling fluidized.
When the gas flow rate sufficiently increases, the terminal velocity Utr of solids is exceeded, the upper surface of the bed disappears, entrainment becomes appreciable instead of bubbling, e Fast Fluidized Bed: With further increasing in gas velocity, solids are carried out of the bed with the gas making a lean phase fluidized, this regime is used for operating CFB.
In the present work, fast fluidized bed is used to operate the CFB where the pressure drop decreases dramatically in this regime.
Beyond the circulating fluidized bed operating regime, there is the pneumatic transport region, pressure drop increases in this regime. An appreciated contribution by Geldart classified the particles based on size and density into four groups viz.
C, A, B, and D. Yang modified Geldart's classification using Archimedes number Ar, under elevated pressure, temperature, and non-dimensional density Yang, The unrecoverable pressure drop along the riser height is a basic value for design; and this results due to solid particles distribution, voidage, gas viscosity, gas velocity, gas density, and density of solid.
This is to ensure the gas and solids will mix together turbulently for better heat transfer and chemical reactions. The fuel will be burnt at a temperature of oF oC to oF Alternatively, the sulfur absorbing chemical and fuel will be recycled to increase the efficiency of producing a higher quality steam as well as lower the emission of pollutants.
Therefore, it will be possible to use circulating fluidized bed technology to burn fuel in a much more environmental friendly method as compared to other conventional processes. Range of applications[ edit ] Circulating fluidized bed technology can be implemented in many different fields ranging from oil and gas to power stations.
This technology is highly sought after due to its numerous benefits. Some of the popular applications of circulating fluidized bed are circulating fluidized bed scrubber and circulating fluidized bed gasification system.
Circulating fluidized bed scrubber[ edit ] One of the applications of a circulating fluidized bed scrubber is at power stations which utilize a dry sorbent usually Ca OH 2 to reduce pollutants like HF, HCL, SO2 and SO3 in a flue gas stream.
Circulating fluidized bed absorber Fabric filter Dry lime hydration system.
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