In this article we explore the relevance of person-centredness in the context of nursing, taking account of the ongoing critical debate and dialogue regarding developments in this field. Person-centredness is recognised as a multidimensional concept. The complexity of the concept contributes to the challenge of articulating its shared meaning and describing how it can be applied in practice.
Background[ edit ] Consumer-driven healthcare plans had their origin in the U. It was developed as a business model for health ventures.
They were designed to engage consumers more directly in their healthcare purchases. The initial conceptual model made cost and quality information available to the consumer, usually through the Internet. HSAs are seen by proponents as a way to make healthcare more affordable and accessible in the U.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Actwhich included provisions designed to stimulate the popularity of these plans, was passed by Congress in November and signed into law by President Bush in December The law expanded medical savings accounts, renaming them Health Savings Accounts and created tax incentives to encourage adoption of high-deductible health plans.
Banks were empowered to create HSAs, Concept of care deliver tax-free interest to the holders, who can then withdraw money tax free to pay for qualified expenditures.
To qualify for an HSA, the purchaser must also have a qualifying high-deductible health insurance plan. Over time, participants are allowed to contribute more cumulatively to the savings account than would be required to fulfill their annual deductible for a given year although Concept of care limits on pre-tax contributions [other than a 1-time IRA rollover option] are well below the annual deductibleand any unused portions of the account accrue without tax penalty so long as the funds are used only for qualified medical expenses.
By Aprilsome 4. Byan estimated 3. Although new federal tax subsidies will help reduce health insurance rates for many consumers, individuals and families that do not qualify, are expected to consider Health Savings Accounts HSAs if they do not have employer-sponsored coverage.
Other countries with experience in this type of health insurance include ChinaTaiwanSingapore and South Africa.
Health insurers, AetnaWellpointHumana and UnitedHealth Group have all provided their own independent analyses as well.
In general, most studies, starting with the RAND study, conclude that increasing the costs co-payments and deductibles to the patient reduces the consumption of healthcare, but it reduces the consumption of both appropriate and inappropriate care, and the reduction is greater for low-income patients.
For example, Joseph Newhousein summarizing the RAND study, reported that visits to doctors and hospitals decline with higher cost sharing, "although for low income families such cutbacks reduced their use of beneficial as well as unnecessary services and was estimated to have increased rates of death from preventable illness.
The authors concluded that "[p]eople enrolled in CDHPs such as those we studied do not underuse preventive services to any greater degree than do those in traditional PPOs.
They found wide variations in cost sharing. Pregnant women could face exposure to high out-of-pocket costs under consumer-driven health plans, particularly when complications arise. Critics of CDHC argue that the system will only saddle consumers with more expenses because free-market variables can never exist in healthcare due to lack of pricing transparency.
Congress in February Some people, called "monitors," track down detailed information, while other people, called "blunters," don't want information. One blunter, a theoretical physicist, said he would be "insulted" if someone read 15 papers on theoretical physics and asked him to help design an experiment; he pays his doctor to explain his choices.
A "monitor," a lawyer, applied her legal research skills but couldn't think clearly enough to decide. People turn to the Internet, become overwhelmed, or don't understand the significance of the information.
And employers, bound in part by Treasury Department regulations, do not vary deductibles, catastrophic caps or contributions to HSAs and HRAs to workers' family incomes or health status as equitable CDHC would call for Many things we buy in health care are pieces of larger packages which are undefined when the decisions are made concerning whether to purchase and where to purchase.
For example, when one goes to the doctor because of a particular set of symptoms, the doctor ask a number of questions which leads to a series of recommended tests whose results then determine an appropriate treatment regime.
One could select the doctor to visit on the basis of price and quality but that is no guarantee that the package of tests and treatments that resulted would be the lowest cost or highest quality The costs of the really expensive treatments would be largely unaffected.
While a survey by the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association found widespread satisfaction among HSA customers,  a survey published in by employee benefits consultants Towers Perrin came to the opposite conclusion; it found that employees currently enrolled in such plans were significantly less satisfied with many elements of the health benefit plan compared to those enrolled in traditional health benefit plans.
There was no correlation found. Chang, UCLA, the study's lead author.Continuum of Care is a concept involving a system that guides and tracks patients over time through a comprehensive array of health services spanning all levels and intensity of care.
The Continuum of Care covers the delivery of healthcare over a period of time, and may refer to care provided from birth to end of life. Woman of the Fudge Jessica Biel (wife of Man of the Woods Justin Timberlake) has finally shuttered her chocolate shop/brunch hotspot/short-term daycare center Au Fudge after realizing chocolate.
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Our Vision. Find out how the AMA is working to enhance the delivery of care and enable physicians and health teams to partner with patients to achieve better health. Concepts of Care is a locally-owned community-based home care agency that provides high quality healthcare to patients across southwest Louisiana.
It is your right to be cared for by the home health agency of your choice.