Born in the hill-fort of Shivneri in Pune district, Shivaji is considered as the founder of Maratha Empire. Shivaji established a competent civil rule and pioneered the guerrilla warfare methods. Using guerrilla tactics, Shivaji protected his legacy from the Mughals who were his main challengers.
History Early history In bc the Persian warrior-king Darius Iwho ruled the largest empire and commanded the best army in the world, bowed to the hit-and-run tactics of the nomadic Scythian s and left them to their lands beyond the Danube. The Macedonian king Alexander the Great — bc also fought serious guerrilla opposition, which he overcame by modifying Guerrilla wafare of shivaji tactics and by winning important tribes to his side.
The Romans themselves fought against guerrillas in their conquest of Spain for more than years before the foundation of the empire. Greek red-figure potteryArcher depicted on an Athenian red-figure plate by Epiktetos, late 6th century bce; in the British Museum, London.
Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum Guerrilla and quasi-guerrilla operations were employed in an aggressive role in ensuing centuries by such predatory barbarians as the Goth s and the Hun s, who forced the Roman Empire onto the defensive; the Magyars, who conquered Hungary; the hordes of northern barbarians who attacked the Byzantine Empire for more than years; the Viking s, who overran Ireland, England, and France; and the Mongol s, who conquered China and terrified central Europe.
In the 12th century the Crusader invasion of Syria was at times stymied by the guerrilla tactics of the Seljuq Turks, a frustration shared by the Normans in their conquest of Ireland — King Edward I of England struggled through long, hard, and expensive campaigns to subdue Welsh guerrillas; that he failed to conquer Scotland was largely due to the brilliant guerrilla operations of Robert the Bruce Robert I.
Courtesy of the Edinburgh University Library, Scotland Origins of modern guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare in time became a useful adjunct to larger political and military strategies—a role in which it complemented orthodox military operations both inside enemy territory and in areas seized and occupied by an enemy.
Toward the end of the U. War of Independence —83a ragtag band of South Carolina irregulars under Francis Marion relied heavily on terrorist tactics to drive the British general Lord Cornwallis from the Carolinas to defeat at Yorktown, Virginia.
Inin the long retreat from Moscow, the armies of Napoleon I suffered thousands of casualties inflicted by bands of Russian peasants working with mounted Cossacks.
Repin's famous historical painting re-creates the drafting of a mocking and insulting letter in to Ottoman sultan Mehmed IV, who had demanded a Cossack surrender. Novosti Press Agency Guerrilla wars flourished in the following two centuries as native irregulars in India, Algeria, Morocco, Burma MyanmarNew Zealandand the Balkans tried, usually in vain, to prevent colonization by the great powers.
Indian tribes in North America stubbornly fought the opening of the West; Cuban guerrillas fought the Spanish; and Filipino guerrillas fought the Spanish and Americans.
In the South African War 90, Boer commandos held off a large British army for two years before succumbing. Boer troops in a trench during the South African War — The Taiping Rebellion —64 in China, a peasant uprising against the Qing dynastykilled an estimated 20 million Chinese before it was suppressed.
During the American Civil War mounted guerrillas from both sides raided far behind enemy lines, often looting and pillaging randomly. Mexican peasants, fighting under such leaders as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villaused guerrilla warfare to achieve a specific political goal in the Mexican Revolution — In the Easter Rising in Ireland led to a ferocious guerrilla war fought by the Irish Republican Army IRA —a war that ceased only with the uneasy peace and partition of Ireland in In communist leader Mao Zedong raised the flag of a rural rebellion that continued for 22 years.
In most of the countries invaded by Germany, Italy, and Japan, local communists either formed their own guerrilla bands or joined other bands—such as the French and Belgian maquis.Feb 19, · Shivaji Jayanti special: Why Chhatrapati Shivaji was neither a rebel nor a guerrilla Chhatrapati Shivaji was a visionary and was the only person who noticed a major flaw in the war machinery of the established Empires and leslutinsduphoenix.com: Medha Deshmukh Bhaskaran.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guerrilla warfare is a type of asymmetric warfare: competition between opponents of unequal strength. It is also a type of irregular warfare: that is, it aims not simply to defeat an enemy, but to win popular support and political influence, to the enemy's cost. Aug 15, · Shivaji had a continuous battle with Aurangzeb and the Mughal leslutinsduphoenix.comzeb was an inveterate enemy of Shivaji and after repeated attempts to defeat him remarked"My armies were employed against him for 19 years,but nevertheless,his state is always increasing".
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj can safely be assumed to be first to use guerrilla warfare in its modern form, in India, after AD. P.S- We must despise Guerrilla Warfare because of its ability to drag on for decades and depriving generations of humanity from peace.
Shivaji believed in the tenets of guerrilla warfare. He was a voracious reader and an ardent follower of Kautilya’s “Kut Niti”. He learnt the importance of terrain in guerrilla war in his early years and never confronted the enemy in open combat.