Services are mostly run by state government owned Transport Corporations. Mumbai introduced air conditioned buses in It was built by Airtel.
India has been experiencing significant growth in e-commerce, with many small companies mushrooming and a few giants striving to take over the huge Indian e-commerce market. Flipkart, Amazon, Snapdeal, Uber, Ola, etc.
Some of them are said to be home-grown, in the sense that their promoters have been Indians. But later they attracted foreign equity, and ultimately are dominated by foreign investors.
As per the law of the land, foreign investment is not allowed in e-commerce. So, these companies got foreign investment in the name of the marketplace model. In this way, while running full-fledged e-commerce businesses, they were circumventing the law.
Into somehow accommodate the operation of these companies, which were not following the legal norms, the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion DIPP came out with a policy framework in the form of Press Note-3, Though FDI was disallowed in e-commerce, it was allowed for a marketplace model, with three major conditions.
First, these marketplaces should not influence the prices of goods and services and offer discounts. Second, they were not allowed to hold inventories stock and third, no single vendor would be providing over 25 per cent of sales.
Recently, there were two major developments with respect to e-commerce, which necessitated clarity at the policy level. At different bilateral and regional trade negotiations, especially the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership RCEPthere has been pressure on India to give a commitment over its stand on e-commerce.
Secondly, in the month of MayFlipkart made a deal with global retail giant Walmart for the sale of 77 per cent of its equity to the latter. Flipkart has been facing allegations of flouting FDI rules and of circumventing the law in many ways. Then started a debate that the quantum of discounts offered by these giants will sound the death knell for conventional shopkeepers, booksellers, e-commerce, start-ups, and job opportunities.
All this requires a clear cut e-commerce policy for India. It talks about a whole range of issues in e-commerce including data localisation, level playing field for the small players, curbing of discounts, consumer protection and promotion of domestic manufacturing Make in India.
It underlines that data is the oil of digital economy.
Communication over mobile phones using mobile applications The history of browsing and search by consumers also generates rich information of consumer preferences By tracking the search history, online retail websites are able to target consumers with tailor-made marketing content.
This is also to ensure there is access to data stored in India for national security and public policy objectives, obviously subject to rules related to privacy, consent, etc. This is an exemplary policy in a world dominated by big players who enjoy monopoly over data, which is used and misused by these players to maximise their economic objectives.
Other data, which has no personal or community implications, can be stored anywhere. Further, it suggests a two-year sunset period before making data localisation mandatory.The leading source for e-commerce news, strategies and research. Including webinars, blogs and e-retailer rankings, Top SET (Commerce) / 4 commerce_SET syllabus () Unit—IV Business Statistics & Data Processing Data types, Data collection and analysis, sampling, need, errors and methods of sampling.
Current active e-commerce penetration in India stands only 28 percent, with lots of room for improvement - India's retail e-commerce CAGR is projected to reach 23 percent . Apr 19, · India is a huge, yet relatively untapped, market that is growing rapidly.
The country had 60 million online shoppers in , which is only 14% of the internet user base in the leslutinsduphoenix.com will.
This statistic shows the e-commerce sales in India In , Indian e-commerce sales amounted to billion US dollars and are projected to grow to.
|E-commerce in India - Statistics & Facts | Statista||These activities include the use of commercial e-mails, online advertising and consumer privacy. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive.|
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Introduction to E-Commerce, 2/e, by Rayport and Jaworksi, can be used as the principles book for e-commerce. Much like there is a “Principles of Marketing” that is intended to be the first course in marketing, The text covers the entire landscape of e-commerce.