Theories of Cognitive Development There exist several theories of cognitive development, and no one theory has yet to explain all of the aspects of cognitive development.
Schemas Imagine what it would be like if you did not have a mental model of your world. It would mean that you would not be able to make so much use of information from your past experience or to plan future actions. Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world.
Wadsworth suggests that schemata the plural of schema be thought of as 'index cards' filed in the brain, each one telling an individual how to react to incoming stimuli or information. When Piaget talked about the development of a person's mental processes, he was referring to increases in the number and complexity of the schemata that a person had learned.
When a child's existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium, i.
Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development and described how they were developed or acquired. A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations.
The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed. For example, a person might have a schema about buying a meal in a restaurant. The schema is a stored form of the pattern of behavior which includes looking at a menu, ordering food, eating it and paying the bill.
This is an example of a type of schema called a 'script. The schemas Piaget described tend to be simpler than this - especially those used by infants. He described how - as a child gets older - his or her schemas become more numerous and elaborate.
Piaget believed that newborn babies have a small number of innate schemas - even before they have had many opportunities to experience the world. These neonatal schemas are the cognitive structures underlying innate reflexes.
These reflexes are genetically programmed into us. For example, babies have a sucking reflex, which is triggered by something touching the baby's lips. A baby will suck a nipple, a comforter dummyor a person's finger. Piaget, therefore, assumed that the baby has a 'sucking schema.
Shaking a rattle would be the combination of two schemas, grasping and shaking. Assimilation and Accommodation Jean Piaget ; see also Wadsworth, viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation adjustment to the world.
Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds. Equilibrium occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas assimilation.Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
Piaget believed that reality is a dynamic system of continuous change and as such, it is defined in reference to the two conditions that define dynamic systems.
There are major differences between the two theories one being that Piaget’s theory puts stress on the cognitive development that is the development of thought processes pertaining to an infant.
On the other hand, Kohlberg’s theory basically works on the moral development of a child. of providing connections between the two domains. Neo-Piagetian and postformal theories of Different faith traditions offer various conceptions of Powers beyond the self: some monotheistic, others polytheis- posed postformal theories of cognitive development to account for cognitive change in adulthood (e.g, Labouvie-Vief, , different ages.
•His theory is very broad, from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of cognitive development. •Nature: maturation of brain and body; ability to perceive, learn, act; motivation Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory •Children’s thinking is not as consistent as the.
Cognitive Development A dramatic shift in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools. They are now able to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect.
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