Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies.
Hope theory can be subdivided into four categories: Goals that are valuable and uncertain are described by Snyderas cited in Snyder,p. Agency thoughts refer to the motivation we have to undertake the routes towards our goals.
Barriers block the attainment of our goals and in the event of a barrier we can either give up or we can use our pathway thoughts to create new routes. Goal attainment has been found to be associated with positive emotions Snyder et al,whereas goal blockages are related to negative emotions Diener, ; however this is not always the case.
High hope individuals do not react in the same way to barriers as low hope individuals, instead they view barriers as challenges to overcome and use their pathway thoughts to plan an alternative route to their goals Snyder, as cited in Snyder, p.
High hope has been found to correlate with a number of beneficial constructs including, academic achievement Snyder et al, and lower levels of depression Snyder et al, Meanwhile low hope is associated with negative outcomes including a reduction in well-being Diener, Measurement Tools to Measure Hope Researchers have developed measurement tools that assess levels of hope as well as agency and pathway thoughts.
But what are the purposes of such assessments? Snyder, has suggested several uses, including predicting outcomes among a sample and providing extra support for those who are low in hope, e. This scale taps into dispositional hope in adults aged over 15 years.
It is a self report questionnaire that contains twelve questions, four that tap agency thoughts e. I energetically pursue my goalsfour that tap pathways thoughts e.
I can think of many ways to get out of a jam. Items are scored on an eight point Likert scale.
The scale creates three scores, a hope score that is created by summing the agency and pathway items or two separate scores that measure agency and pathways independently by totalling their respective items.
Total hope scale scores range from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 64, while agency and pathway scores range from a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 32 with high scores reflecting high levels of hope Snyder et al, Snyder Snyder and colleagues have used the ADHS in a number of different populations including American undergraduates, patients seeking psychological treatment and war veterans who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder.
Further evidence to support the reliability of this scale is demonstrated by the test-retest statistics, which Snyder et al, reports as being. Results support the presence of two distinct factors as agency items loaded heavily on factor one but not on factor two, while pathway items loaded heavily on factor two but not on factor one.
Only one exception to this was discovered with one pathway item loading more heavily on the agency factor in a sample of clinical patients.
Furthermore scree plot analysis revealed eigenvalues of less than 1. It is also hypothesised that although agency and pathways are distinct components they are linked and this is supported by Snyder et al, who found significant positive correlations at the.
Another method used to assess the validity of a scale is to assess the correlations that occur with scales that tap constructs that are either similar, opposite or unrelated.
Furthermore the four agency items have held together in terms of factor analysis on over 40 studies, suggesting that the four agency items do join together to form one common factor Shorey et al, Hope levels may fluctuate depending on specific circumstances, e.
This scale is a six item self report questionnaire that is designed to tap into state hope in adults. The scale has three agency items Q6. At this time, I am meeting the goals that I have set for myself and three pathway items Q5. I can think of many ways to reach my current goals.
Items are scored using an 8 point Likert scale and scores are created for overall hope by summing all the items and by summing the even numbered items to get an agency score and all the odd-numbered items to get a pathway score.
Total hope scores range from 6 to 48 and subscale scores range from 3 to 24 with high scores representing high hope Snyder et al, No descriptive statistics are reported for the ASHS as it is not fitting to talk about norms with this scale as the scores fluctuate depending on circumstances.
Snyder et al, tested the reliability of this scale in four studies that sampled American students. The authors found Cronbach alphas of. Furthermore they found test-retest correlations of between.
Note that test-retest correlations should in this instance vary due to the fact it is measuring state hope rather than trait hope. They found that the first two factors had eigenvalues above 1. In order to create equal amounts of agency and pathway items, the pathway item with the lowest average factor loading was also eliminated.
It is hypothesised that state hope scores should fluctuate over time depending on circumstances, but they should not deviate substantially from scores on the ADHS as Snyder et al, have theorised that dispositional hope has an upper and lower range and within this range state hope should fall.
This hypothesis was supported as correlations of. A person may be high in hope in relation to their career but have low hope in relation to relationships.
In this case the dispositional or state hope measures discussed above would fail to pick up upon the discrepancies that manifest in this persons hope profile.UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN SOCIOLOGY – Vol.
II - Institutional Analysis and Development: Elements of The Framework in Historical Perspective - Elinor Ostrom ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) communities of individuals involved are combined in a configural rather than an.
UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN SOCIOLOGY – Vol. II - Institutional Analysis and Development: Elements of The Framework in Historical Perspective - Elinor Ostrom ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) communities of individuals involved .
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A New Perspective on Gaussian Dynamic Term Structure Models We show that, within any canonical GDTSM and for any sample of bond yields, imposing no-arbitrage does not affect the conditionalPexpectation of. Snyder and colleagues have used the ADHS in a number of different populations including American undergraduates, patients seeking psychological treatment and war veterans who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder.