Women with learning disabilities You can also find more information about the studies and their findings on our research pages. Please use the data from these surveys to help reduce barriers to screening within your surgery and to help you when you talk to your patients. Do you need materials to help reach those women that do not attend?
This burden of disease exists in spite of cervical cancer being one of the most preventable cancers 2. Thus, prevention strategies are largely targeted at preventing HPV infection or preventing disease progression for those who are infected.
There are 2 types of preventive measures available to reduce incidence and mortality from cervical cancer: While vaccination is a primary preventive measure providing protection against the incidence of illnessscreening is a secondary preventive measure aiming to diagnose illness early and prevent its progression.
At present, screening strategies for cervical cancer have not been altered for females who are HPV vaccinated 6.
Consequently, for health economists, the question regarding the most cost-effective combination of screening strategies along with vaccination arises. The economic impact of screening HPV vaccinated populations is analytical information that health policy makers require for the formulation of effective, evidence-based strategies.
The purpose of this literature review is to collect and collate the best possible evidence available to answer this question. This review aims to systematically analyze health economic studies on HPV vaccination to provide integrated evidence and recommendations based on its cost—effectiveness when combined with differing cervical cancer screening strategies.
During the search conducted in Julyit was noted that a systematic review by Mendes et al 7 on CEA of prevention strategy combinations against HPV infection, was published on March 28th after the preliminary literature review search was conducted by the author. Upon examining this paper, it was found that: It is passed on primarily through genital contact such as vaginal and anal sex and also by skin-to-skin contact 3.
Over types of HPV have been identified and more than 40 of these infect the genital area. Among the cancer-related outcomes of HPV infection, cervical cancer is the most important outcome, with over 5,00, new cases and 2,75, attributable deaths world-wide in The high-risk cancer causing types of HPV include: Women who are infected with HPV may have their infection clear, progress or persist.
Persistence is the most significant determinant of whether or not a HPV-infected woman will develop a clinically significant sequelae 4.
Primary Prevention — Vaccines: Currently 2 first generation HPV vaccines have enabled prevention against the two most common types of human papillomavirus infection — strains 16, 18 Bivalent and also 6 and 11 Quadrivalent. Persistent HPV infection can cause pre-cancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer thereafter.
With regular cervical cancer screening and appropriate follow-up, most cervical cancer precursors can be identified and treated, interrupting progression to the severe disease stage. Screening programs can reduce cancer risk among those who do not receive the vaccine, those infected by non-vaccine targeted HPV types, and those who demonstrate reduced vaccine efficacy, providing insurance at the population level, given the uncertainties surrounding vaccine performance.
The screening tools available include Evidence suggests that cervical cancer screening using cytology is one of the most successful public health prevention programs, particularly when implemented in a mass strategy This method involves the collection of exfoliated cells from the cervix followed by microscopic examination of the same after staining, for cellular abnormalities.
Based on these abnormalities, further investigation is required to arrive at a diagnosis. There are two cytological screening methods: Visual inspection of the cervix continues to be implemented as a screening tool for low-resource settings, despite its limited specificity and poor positive predictive value PPVas it is economical and can provide immediate results.
This test has shown higher sensitivity and reproducibility of results than Cytology, for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CINalthough lower specificity 30 Unfortunately, the high cost of this option has limited its availability in Low and Middle income countries of the world Presents information about the NHS Cervical Screening Programme in England and includes data about the call and re-call system, screening samples examined by pathology laboratories, referrals to.
RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Influences on uptake of cancer screening in mental health service users: a qualitative study Abigail Clifton1, Caroline Burgess2, Sarah Clement3, Ruth Ohlsen1, Pras. Progress in Cervical Screening in the UK 1.
Introduction STRATEGIC (Strategies to Increase Cervical Screening Uptake at First Invitation) trial,7 which will report The Department of Health made a public commitment that cervical screening results would be provided. Lower awareness of the symptoms of cancer in some social groups, later presentation to GPs, lower uptake of screening services and unequal access to high quality services (known as the "postcode lottery") also play a role (NHS Cancer Plan, ).
Their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards cervical cancer and screening is crucial and likely to correlate with their uptake of available screening programs and also encourage their friends, families and social organizations to do same to better the health and lives of Ghanaian women.
In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport.