Personally, I like to start by using street names, and train lines to do this.
As long as writing was seen merely as transcription, as it was by such pioneering linguists as Ferdinand de Saussure and Leonard Bloomfield earlier in the 20th century, its conceptual significance was seriously underestimated. Once writing was seen as providing a new medium for linguistic expression, its distinctness from speech was more clearly grasped.
Scholars such as Milman Parry, Marshall McLuhanEric Havelock, Jack Goody, and Walter Ong were among the first to analyze the conceptual and social implications of using written as opposed to oral forms of communication.
Writing is merely one, albeit the most important, means of communicating by visible signs. Gestures—such as a raised hand for greeting or a wink for intimate agreement—are visible signs, but they are not writing in that they do not transcribe a linguistic form. Pictures, similarly, may represent events but do not represent language and hence are not a form of writing.
But the boundary between pictures and writing becomes less clear when pictures are used conventionally to convey particular meanings.
Indeed, linguists define grammar as a system for mapping—establishing a system of relations between—sound and meaning. These levels of structure admit of several subdivisions, any one of which may be captured in a writing system. The basic unit of the meaning system is called a morpheme ; one or more morphemes make up a word.
Thus, the word boys is composed of two morphemes, boy and plurality. Grammatically related words make up clauses that express larger units of meaning.
Still-larger units make up such discourse structures as propositions and less well-defined units of meaning such as prayers, stories, and poems. The basic linguistic unit of the sound system is called a phoneme ; it is a minimal, contrastive sound unit that distinguishes one utterance from another.
Phonemes may be further analyzed in terms of a set of underlying distinctive features, features specifying the ways the sound is physically produced by passing breath through the throat and positioning the tongue and lips. Phonemes may be thought of as roughly equivalent to the sound segments known as consonants and vowels, and combinations of these segments make up syllables.
Writing systems can serve to represent any of these levels of sound or any of the levels of meaning, and, indeed, examples of all of these levels of structure have been exploited by some writing system or other.
Writing systems consequently fall into two large general classes: The earlier failure to recognize these levels of structure in language led some scholars to believe that some writing systems, so-called ideograms and pictograms, had been invented to express thought directly, bypassing language altogether.
The 17th-century German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz set out to invent the perfect writing system, which would reflect systems of thought directly and thereby be readable by all human beings regardless of their mother tongues.
It is now known that such a scheme is impossible. Thought is too intimately related to language to be represented independently of it. More recently there have been attempts to invent forms for communicating explicit messages without assuming a knowledge of any particular language.
Such messages are communicated by means of pictorial signs. Thus, the skirted human figure painted on the door to a toilet, the human figure with an upraised hand on the Pioneer spacecraft, the Amerindian drawing of a horse and rider upside down painted on a rock near a precipitous trail, and the visual patterns branded on range cattle are all attempts to use visual marks to communicate without making any appeal to the structure of any particular language.
However, such signs function only because they represent a high level of linguistic structure and because they function to express one of a highly restricted range of meanings already known to the reader and not because they express ideas or thoughts directly.
The plaque on the spacecraft can be read as a greeting only if the reader already knows how to express a human greeting symbolically.
The inverted horse and rider expressed the message that horses and riders should avoid the trail. Such signs therefore express meanings, not thoughts, and they do so by representing meaning structures larger than can be expressed by a single word.This is a list of genres of literature and entertainment, excluding genres in the visual arts.
Genre is the term for any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.
Genres are formed by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented . Get an accountant, abstain from sex and similes, cut, rewrite, then cut and rewrite again – if all else fails, pray.
Inspire by Elmore Leonard's 10 Rules of Writing, we asked authors for their. Twelve years after it was first published, The Joy of Writing Sex remains the classic writer's resource on creating compelling sex scenes. Elizabeth Benedict covers all the issues, from the first time, to married sex and adultery, to sex in the age of AIDS.
Fonda Lee, author of debut novel ZEROBOXER and experienced fighter, shares how to write realistic and satisfying action/fight scenes. Hi Joanna! This is my first time here – and so far – I’m loving the content and value you are sharing.
I like writing and using my imagination a lot. I hesitated, my heart thumping, at the boundary between light and dark. From the overhead clumps of moss, cold drops plopped into my hair, a water clock ticking away the precious seconds.